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Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Everything You Need To Know About The Condition

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Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) refers to the noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland, a walnut-sized gland located below the bladder in men. As the prostate grows in size, it can squeeze the urethra, causing urinary symptoms and potentially affecting bladder function.

Prevalence and Impact on Men’s Health

BPH is common in older men, with over 50% of men in their 60s and up to 90% in their 70s and 80s experiencing symptoms. BPH can significantly impact quality of life, leading to bothersome urinary symptoms and potential complications if untreated.

Causes and Risk Factors

Age-related Hormonal Changes

With age, men experience hormonal shifts, including an increase in estrogen levels and a decrease in testosterone. These changes can disrupt the hormonal balance, leading to the enlargement of the prostate gland, a common characteristic of BPH.

Genetic Predisposition

Research indicates a genetic link in the development of BPH. Men with a family history of BPH, particularly among close relatives like fathers or brothers, are at a heightened risk of developing the condition.

Lifestyle Factors

Certain lifestyle factors can contribute to the risk of developing BPH. These include:

  • Obesity: Being overweight or obese increases the risk of BPH.
  • Sedentary lifestyle: Lack of physical activity may be associated with a higher likelihood of developing BPH.
  • Diet: A diet high in red meat and low in fruits and vegetables may increase the risk of BPH.

Medical Conditions that May Contribute to BPH

Certain medical conditions can contribute to the development or exacerbation of BPH, including:

  • Diabetes: Diabetes can contribute to BPH due to insulin resistance stimulating prostate cell growth. Additionally, diabetes-related nerve damage can worsen BPH urinary symptoms.
  • Heart disease: Heart disease and BPH share common risk factors like age and obesity. Beta-blockers, used in heart disease management, can cause urinary symptoms similar to BPH.
  • Metabolic syndrome: Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of conditions that occur together, increasing your risk of heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Conditions include high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol levels, which can lead to hormonal imbalances contributing to prostate enlargement, key characteristic of BPH.
  • Family History of BPH: Genetics can play a role in the development of BPH. If close male relatives, such as your father or brother, have BPH, your chances of developing the condition may be higher. 

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Symptoms and Complications of BPH

Urinary Symptoms Associated with BPH

Common urinary symptoms associated with BPH may include:

  • Frequent urination: This is often the first noticeable symptom of BPH. As the prostate enlarges, presses against the urethra, causing a need to urinate more often than usual, especially at night (nocturia).
  • Difficulty Starting Urination: Men with BPH may find it hard to start urinating. This is due to the increased pressure on the urethra, which can make it difficult for urine to flow freely.
  • Weak Urine Stream or Dribbling: BPH can cause a weak or interrupted urine stream. Some men may also experience dribbling at the end of urination.
  • Inability to Completely Empty the Bladder: As BPH progresses, it may become difficult to fully empty the bladder. 
  • Urgency to Urinate: Men with BPH may feel a sudden, strong urge to urinate, which can be difficult to control.

Potential Complications if BPH is Left Untreated

If BPH is left untreated, it can lead to several complications. These include:

  • Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): Incomplete bladder emptying can lead to urinary stasis, which increases the risk of UTIs.
  • Bladder Stones: These are hard deposits of minerals that can form when the bladder isn’t completely emptied. They can cause pain and lead to UTIs.
  • Bladder Damage: Chronic retention of urine can lead to bladder damage over time, affecting its ability to contract and fully empty.
  • Kidney Damage: In severe cases, BPH can cause backflow of urine into the kidneys, a condition known as hydronephrosis. This can lead to kidney damage if not treated promptly.

Diagnosing Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

Medical History and Physical Examination

The urologist will take a detailed medical history and conduct a physical examination, including a digital rectal examination (DRE), to assess the size and condition of the prostate gland.

Urine and Blood Tests

Urine tests may be conducted to check for any signs of infection or blood in the urine. Blood tests, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, may be performed to help rule out prostate cancer and evaluate overall prostate health.

Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Testing

PSA testing measures the levels of PSA, a protein produced by the prostate gland, in the blood. Elevated PSA levels can indicate various prostate conditions, including BPH and prostate cancer. However, many factors can affect PSA levels, so this test is usually considered alongside other diagnostic information.

Imaging Studies and Other Diagnostic Procedures

Imaging studies, such as ultrasound or MRI, may be conducted to assess the size and structure of the prostate gland. In some cases, additional diagnostic procedures, such as urodynamic testing or cystoscopy, may be recommended to evaluate bladder function and rule out other urinary conditions.

Treatment Options

Watchful Waiting and Lifestyle Modifications

For individuals with mild symptoms, the urologist may recommend a watchful waiting approach, where regular monitoring is conducted without immediate intervention. Lifestyle modifications, such as reducing fluid intake before bedtime and avoiding caffeine and alcohol, can also help manage symptoms.

Medications for Symptom Relief

Medications can be prescribed to alleviate BPH symptoms. These may include:

  • Alpha-blockers: Relax the muscles around the prostate and bladder neck to improve urine flow.
  • 5-alpha reductase inhibitors: Reduce the size of the prostate gland by inhibiting the production of certain hormones.
  • Combination therapy: A combination of alpha-blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors may be used for more significant symptom relief.

Minimally Invasive Procedures

This procedure aims to relieve urinary symptoms by reducing prostate gland size or removing excess prostate tissue. Examples include:

  • Transurethral Microwave Thermotherapy (TUMT): Microwaves are used to shrink the prostate and relieve urinary symptoms.
  • Transurethral Needle Ablation (TUNA): Needles deliver low-level radiofrequency energy to destroy excess prostate tissue, reducing its size and improving urinary flow.
  • Water-induced Thermotherapy (WIT): Heated water is circulated to shrink the prostate tissue and alleviate urinary symptoms.
  • Prostatic Urethral Lift (PUL): Small implants are placed in the prostate to lift and hold the enlarged tissue away from the urethra, improving urine flow.

Surgical Interventions

In cases of severe BPH or when other treatments have not provided sufficient relief, surgical interventions may be considered. Common surgical procedures for BPH include:

  • Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP): TURP is a surgery where a special instrument is inserted through the urethra to remove excess prostate tissue, improving urine flow.
  • Laser Surgery: Laser surgery uses laser energy to vaporize or remove the excess prostate tissue, reducing its size and improving urinary symptoms.
  • Open Prostatectomy: Open prostatectomy is a traditional surgery that involves making an incision in the lower abdomen to remove the enlarged part of the prostate, alleviating urinary symptoms.


Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition affecting many men, particularly as they age.

If you are experiencing urinary symptoms, seek medical advice from a urologist. Early detection and treatment of BPH can significantly improve your quality of life and prevent potential complications.