Cystectomy is a procedure to remove the entire bladder.

A cystectomy may be recommended for bladder cancer that would be best managed by complete removal of the bladder.

After the bladder is removed, a channel for urine to reach the skin is created. The flow of urine is usually diverted into a short piece of small intestine which is brought out onto the skin on the abdomen as a stoma. This is known as an ileal conduit.

Alternatively, a reservoir for urine can be constructed with a section of bowel and connected to the urethra, known as a neobladder.


A cystoscopy is a procedure to look into the bladder using a small fibre optic telescope (cystoscope) that is passed through the urethra. This allows areas of the bladder and urethra that are not well presented on imaging to be examined.

You may need a cystoscopy to investigate symptoms such as blood in urine and painful urination, to remove foreign objects, or in certain bladder treatments. Tissue samples may also be obtained for investigation.

At URODOC, our team is experienced in conducting both flexible and rigid cystoscopies for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Flexible cystoscopies can be carried out in our on site procedure room.


Transurethral resection of a bladder tumour (TURBT) is a procedure to remove a tumour from the bladder via the urethra. The bladder tumours are resected off the bladder wall using a special telescope and sent for pathology analysis. It is the most common way of treating bladder cancer.

At URODOC, our team is experienced in TURBT for the investigation and management of bladder tumours.


Urodynamic studies are tests to asses bladder functions. They are used to investigate and explain urinary problems such as incontinence, overactive bladder and symptoms caused by prostate enlargement.

Urodynamics aims to help diagnose the underlying cause of urinary problems so that medical management can be directed appropriately.

BCG Instillation

BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) is a type of intravesical immunotherapy treatment for superficial bladder cancer. Intravesical means ‘within the bladder’.

This treatment involves placing a substance called BCG directly into your bladder via a thin catheter — BCG is a vaccine that can destroy cancer cells by stimulating the immune system to become active in the bladder. It is also used to reduce the incidence of the cancer returning.