Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a non-invasive procedure for kidney stones. in the upper urinary tract. The shockwaves are targeted at a kidney stone to break it up into small fragments, which allows them to be passed.

Several factors, such as size, density and number of the stones, will determine whether ESWL is a suitable treatment option for you.


Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a minimally invasive procedure to fragment and remove kidney stones, using a keyhole approach through a small incision in the back.

PCNL is usually reserved for the management of large stones or patients with complex kidney anatomy.


Ureteroscopy is a minimally invasive surgery using a small telescope to look inside the ureter and kidney, for the treatment of kidney stones.

The telescope (ureteroscope) is passed through the urethra and into the ureter to reach the stones. A basket is used to retrieve the stones, or laser may be used to break larger stones apart so they can be removed. No cuts or incisions are needed for the procedure.